PAPERS ./ RELATIVE TO HOSPITALS IN CHINA BOSTON: I. R. BUTTS, PRINTER, SCHOOL STREET. 1841, r > INTRODUCTORY REMARKS BY A COMMITTEE OF THE BOSTON MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. Many persons are already aware, that for four years past a hospital has been maintained in Canton, in China, under the care of the Rev. Peter Parker, M. D. This gentleman had been sent to China as a Christian mis- sionary, by the American Board for Foreign Missions. Before he engaged in this holy work, he qualified him- self by a regular course of study to practice medicine and surgery, and was graduated a Doctor of Medicine, at Yale College. It seems to have occurred to him that, if he was to propagate Christianity among the heathen, it would be well to exhibit the excellence of that holy religion in practice. Dr. Parker was support- ed by those who sent him, and he sought no pecuniary reward for his labors ; but he had nothing else to give. The expenses of his hospital were defrayed by contri- r butions from British and American gentlemen, resident in Canton. Strongly impressed by the benefit of his labors, these gentlemen formed a society in Canton, which they named the Medical Missionary Society, the object of which was, to maintain hospitals in Canton, and elsewhere in China. Under their auspices, besides the hospital in Canton, one has been opened in Macao, with every prospect of success. The late interruption of the foreign trade in China, has deprived these hospi- tals of the support which has heretofore been afforded to them. The question arises whether aid cannot be procured for them in this country and in Great Britain. Medical men in this country have read from time to time the reports of the benevolent labors, which have now been referred to, with great interest. Dr. Parker's success, in surgical practice especially, under circum- stances far from being favorable, has led them to regard him with great respect. Hence they were induced to receive him, on his recent visit to this country, with sincere cordiality, and to inquire if in any way they could promote the benevolent objects to which he had devoted himself. In this city a meeting of the Medical Association was called, so that all medical men here might have an opportunity of seeing him, during his short visit, and that they might hear from him some ac- count of his operations, and an explanation of his wishes. At the conclusion of this meeting, the Association re- solved to " invite the attention of men of property to the medical establishments in China, and earnestly to recommend that they should furnish such assistance as shall give a permanent maintenance to these establish- ments." The Association also appointed " a Committee to consult with any persons, who may take an interest in the subject of the medical establishments in China, and to take such measures as may seem to them expedient to obtain the aid required." This Committee consisted of Drs. Jackson, Warren, Shattuck, Hooper, and Bow- ditch. The Committee thus appointed, have believed that they could not better perform the duty assigned them, than by reprinting certain proceedings of the Medical Missionary Society in China, and the Address which accompanied the publication of the same in Canton. These will be found in the following pages. The Committee do not think that they can set forth the advantages of the plan, which has been adopted by this Society, in any better terms than those contained in the Address. They will therefore only beg all those, to whom this pamphlet is sent, to read the articles sub- joined, and to give to them the attention they deserve. It may be proper to add, that there is reason to hope that aid will be derived from the commercial cities in other parts of the Union for the benevolent object, which has been mentioned ; and that Dr. Parker has now gone to England, at the invitation of some of the British merchants recently at Canton, and that aid for the same object will probably be furnished by some of the opulent citizens of that country. By order of the Committee of the Boston Medical Association, James Jackson, Chairman. Boston, April 23, 1841. THE MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN C HINA. ADDRESS, WITH MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS REGULATIONS AND RESOLUTIONS. At a public meeting, called by T. R. Colledge, Esq., the Rev. P. Parker, M. D., and the Rev. E. C. Bridgman (G. T. Lay, Esq., attending on the part of Mr. Colledge), which was held in the rooms of the General Chamber of Commerce, at Canton, on the 21st of February, 1838, it was — Proposed by the Rev. P. Parker, and seconded by R. Inglis, Esq., " That Mr. Jardine take the Chair." This being unanimously agreed to, the Chair was accordingly taken by W. Jardine, Esq., who stated, that the object for which the meeting had been called was, the organization of a Medical Missionary Society, in conformity with a plan which had been for some time in contemplation, and in reference to which certain sug- gestions had been published, about eighteen months previously, by the gentlemen by whom the meeting was called. The following Resolutions, relating to the organization of the contemplated Society, having been read consecutively, were then severally discussed and adopted. 2 10 OBJECT. On the motion of G. Tradescant Lay, Esq., seconded by the Rev. E. C. Bridgman, Resolved, I. " That, in order to give a wider extension, and a permanency, to the efforts that have already been made to spread the benefits of rational medicine and surgery among the Chinese, a Society be or- ganized at Canton, under the name of the Medical Missionary So- ciety in China : That the object of this Society be, to encourage gentlemen of the medical profession to come and practice gratui- tously among the Chinese, by affording the usual aid of hospitals, medicine and attendants : But that the support and remuneration of such medical gentlemen be not at present within its contem- plation." OFFICERS. On the motion of R. Inglis, Esq., seconded by J. Archer, Esq., Resolved, II. " That the officers of this Society consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, a Recording Secretary, a Corresponding Secre- tary, a Treasurer, and an Auditor of Accounts, — to be elected by ballot annually : That these officers collectively form a Com- mittee of Management, for performing the business of the Society : That, in the absence of the President, the duties of his office be performed by the senior Vice-President, that is, by the Vice-Pres- ident whose name shall stand first in order on the ballot list : That any vacancy occurring between the annual meetings be filled up by the committee : And that the Secretaries and Treasurer render every year a Report of the operations of the Society." MEMBERS. On the motion of James Matheson, Esq., seconded by Captain Hine, Resolved, IIL " That persons subscribing fifteen dollars annually be con- 11 sidered members of the Society during the period of their subscrip- tion : That donors to the amount of one hundred dollars at one time be constituted members for life : And that donors of five hun- dred dollars at a time be constituted directors for life." MEETINGS. On the motion of J. Robert Morrison, Esq., seconded by the Rev. P. Parker, Resolved, IV. " That an annual meeting of the Society be held on the last Thursday of September, in each year, for the election of offi- cers and the transaction of general business : That the President be empowered to call a special meeting of the Society, at the re- quest of the committee of management, or on the application of five members : And that the committee regulate the times of its own meetings." LIBRARY. On the motion of T. H. Layton, Esq., seconded by G. Trades- cant Lay, Esq., Resolved, V. " That this association shall have a Library, to be called ' the Library of the Medical Missionary Society in China,' and to be under the control of the committee of management, by which do- nations of books, &c, may be accepted." ANATOMICAL museum. On the motion of H. M. Clarke, Esq., seconded by R. Inglis, Esq., Resolved, VI. " That this Society form a museum of natural and morbid anatomy, paintings of extraordinary diseases, he, to be called ' the Anatomical Museum of the Medical Missionary Society in China,' and to be under the control of the committee of management." 12 TRUSTEES. On the motion of J. Archer, Esq., seconded by G. T. Lay, Esq., Resolved, VII. " That all real estate or other property belonging to the Society be held on behalf of the same by a Board of Trustees, to consist of the President, the Treasurer, and the Auditor of Ac- counts." QUALIFICATIONS OF MEDICAL MEN EMPLOYED. On the motion of the Rev. E. C. Bridgman, seconded by G. T. Lay, Esq., Resolved, VIII. " That candidates for the patronage of the society must furnish satisfactory certificates of their medical education, approved of by the society sending them out, — with testimonials from some religious body as to their piety, prudence, and correct moral and religious character." DUTIES OF SUCH MEDICAL MEN. On the motion of Alexander Matheson, Esq., seconded by T. H. Layton, Esq., Resolved, IX. " That this society will not assume the right to control any individual acting under its patronage, or to interfere with or modify the instructions he may have received from the society sending him out : That it will, however, expect a strict observance of any gen- eral regulations for the management of its institutions, and a dili- gent study of some one dialect of the Chinese tongue, on the part of those who receive its patronage: And that it will reserve to itself the right of withdrawing its patronage, at the discretion of the committee of management, from any individual who may, from non- compliance with its regulations, or from other causes, incur its dis- pleasure." 13 HOSPITAL REGISTER. On the motion of G. T. Lay, Esq., seconded by the Rev. P. Parker, Resolved, X. " That at each institution under the patronage of the society a book shall be kept, in which shall be inserted, in a fair and legible hand, an account of all important medical or surgical cases : And that, in order that this may not interfere with the other important duties of the physician or surgeon, any assistance necessary for keeping such a register shall be defrayed by the society." FOREIGN AGENTS. On the motion of E. Moller, Esq., seconded by G. T. Lay, Esq., Resolved, XI. "That the committee of management be empowered to ap- point agents in Great Britain and America, to receive and transmit to them any sums that may be paid on behalf of this society." After these resolutions had been severally discussed and adopted, it was moved by Rorert Inglis, Esq., seconded by A. C. Mac- lean, Esq., and Resolved, " That the members of this society are deeply impressed with a sense of the services which Mr. Colledge and Dr. Parker have rendered to humanity, by the gratuitous medical aid they have af- forded to the Chinese, which services have tended to originate this society : And that the members trust to the philanthropy and zeal of those gentlemen to carry the purposes of the society into effect, and to enable it to perpetuate the benefits which have been already conferred." It was then moved by James Matheson, Esq., seconded by R. Turner, Esq., and 14 Resolved, " That the thanks of this meeting be presented to T. R. Col- ledge, Esq., for the responsibility and trouble taken by him in pur- chasing and putting into repair a convenient and suitable building for a medical institution at Macao : That the said building be ac- cepted by this society, on the liberal terms of Mr. Colledge's offer : And that the Trustees be authorized to take the necessary steps for the transfer of the property." Resolved, " That the meeting now proceed to the election of officers." The following officers were duly elected : President, T. R. Col- ledge, Esq.; Vice-Presidents, Rev. Peter Parker, M. D., W. Jardine, Esq., G. T. Lay, Esq., Rev. E. C. Bridgman ; Re- cording Secretary, A. Anderson, Esq. ; Corresponding Secreta- ry, C. W. King, Esq. ; Treasurer, Joseph Archer, Esq. ; Au- ditor of Accounts, J. C. Green, Esq.* The following officers form the Board of Trustees : Thomas Richardson Colledge, Esq., Joseph Archer, Esq., John Cleve Green, Esq. Thanks having been voted to the Chair, the meeting was then adjourned. Minutes of a public meeting of the Medical Missionary Society in China, held in the rooms of the General Chamber of Commerce, on Tuesday, the 24th of April, 1838,— The Rev. Peter Parker, M. D., Vice-President, in the chair. The minutes of the general meeting held on the 21st of Febru- * In a meeting of the Committee of Management, hold on the 23d of February. some alterations were made in this list. R. Inglis and A. Anderson, Esqrs., wen 15 ary last having been read, it was, — in reference to certain changes subsequently made by the committee of management in the list of officers — On the motion of Richard Turner, Esq., seconded by the Rev. E. C. Bridgman, Resolved, " That the provisional changes made by the committee of man- agement in the list of officers of the Society, be confirmed by this meeting." The following resolution, passed by the committee of management on the 23d of February last, was read, viz : " That Mr. Colledge, Dr. Parker, and Mr. Bridgman, be requested to draw out a general statement of the objects and prospects of the Society, its regula- tions, and other particulars of its organization, for the purpose of publication, the same to be submitted for approval to a general meeting of the Society." The address that had been drawn up in accordance with this resolution was also read. It was then, On the motion of W. Jardine, Esq., seconded by J. C. Green, Esq., Resolved, " That the address that has just been read be accepted, and that, agreeably to the resolution of the committee of management, it be printed, accompanied by the list of regulations, and other particulars of information regarding the state and prospects of the Society." On the motion of R. Inglis, Esq., seconded by J. Archer, Esq., Resolved, " That this meeting, having heard that an application is to be made to the proprietor of the building now occupied as a hospital in Canton to repair and enlarge it, is of opinion, that Dr. Parker added to the number of the Vice-Presidents, and J. R. Morrison, Esq., was ap- pointed Recording Secretary in the room of Mr. Anderson. 16 should, for the following reasons, be requested to avail himself of the time required for such repairs and alterations, to proceed to Macao, to open, and for three or four months to take charge of, the hospital there. — These reasons are, that there are now many cases in Ma- cao calling for early attention, whereas in Canton most of the cases of old standing have been relieved, — and that a great advantage will be experienced in the new institution being opened by a person acquainted with the language and habits of the Chinese, rather than by any one, a stranger to their language and habits, who may here- after arrive." On the motion of J. Archer, Esq., seconded by W. Bell, Esq., Resolved, " That this Society views with pleasure the prospects of an early increase in the number of its medical cooperators in this country ; and that it trusts the hospitals, both in Canton and Macao, may en- joy, ere long, all needed superintendence, in the presence of at least two surgeons in each. On the motion of W. Jardine, Esq., seconded by J. C. Green, Esq., Resolved, " That with a view of increasing the existing pecuniary means of the Society, the Secretary be empowered to call a general meet- ing, a few days subsequently to the publication of the pamphlet now about to be printed." The meeting then adjourned. 17 LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEMBERS. COMMITTEE OF MANAGEMENT. President, — Thomas R. Colledge, Esq. Vice-Presidents . Rev. Peter Parker, M. D. William Jardine, Esq. Robert Inglis, Esq. Alexander Anderson, Esq. G. Tradescant Lay, Esq. Rev. E. C. Bridgman. Recording Secretary , — John Robert Morrison, Esq. Corresponding Secretary, — Charles William King, Esq. Treasurer, — Joseph Archer, Esq. Auditor of Accounts, — John C. Green, Esq. TRUSTEES. Thomas Richardson Colledge, Esq., Joseph Archer Esq. John Cleve Green, Esq. DIRECTORS FOR LIFE. Lancelot Dent, Esq., I J. Matheson, Esq. Robert Inglis, Esq. Framjee Pestonjee, Esq. William Jardine, Esq. | J. C. Whiteman, Esq. 3 18 MEMBERS A. Anderson, Esq. J. Archer, Esq. J. H. Astell, Esq. W. Bell, Esq. W. Blenkin, Esq. W. Carr, Esq. Calcutta. T. R. Colledge, Esq. J. Covert, Esq. F. M. Davidson, Esq. Wilkinson Dent, Esq. R. Diggles, Esq. Batavia. Captain C. Elliot, R. N. T. Fox, Esq. Hon. S. Garling. Malacca. Thomas Gemmell, Esq. O. H. Gordon, Esq. J. C. Green, Esq. J. Hamilton, Esq. (Deceased.) A. Hay, Esq. Singapore. Captain A Henderson. Captain J. Hine. H. C. S. FOR LIFE. A. R. Johnston, Esq. Andrew Johnston, Esq. A. S. Keating, Esq. (Deceased.) J. Innes, Esq. T. H. Layton, Esq. H. H. Lindsay, Esq. A. Matheson, Esq. J. R. Morrison, Esq. G. G. Nicol, Esq. D. W. C. Olyphant, Esq. W. R. Paterson, Esq. Glasgow. A. Robertson, Esq. Sir G. B. Robinson, Bart. John Slade, Esq. G. C. Schwabe, Esq. J. P. Sturgis, Esq. R. Turner, Esq. WOO TUNYUEN (HoWQUA.) W. S. Wetmore, Esq. S. Wetmore, Jr. Esq. Henry Wright, Esq. C. Bovet, Esq. Mrs. Bovet. (Deceased.) Mrs. Colledge. Captain C. Elliot, R. N ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS. Edmund Moller, Esq. C. Fearon, Esq. Lady Herschell. Captain T. Smith, h. c. s. J. C. Ste-wart, Esq. FOREIGN AGENTS. Messrs. Hankky & Co., London. Messrs. Magniac, Smiths & Co., London. J. Thomson, F.s^., Royal Bank, Edinburgh. Messrs. James Ewing &, Co., Glasgow. Henry Hill, Esq., Boston. Messes. Talbot, Olyphant & Co., New York. Kir hard Axsop, Esq., Philadelphia. Messrs. W. Wilson &, Sons, Baltimore. M. St. Clair Clarke, Esq. Washington. ADDRESS. In October, 1336, after mature deliberation, and en- couraged by many whose views were in accordance with our own, a few suggestions relative to the subject of providing medical aid for the Chinese were drawn up, and published. The hope then cherished has been realized; the first public act — the organization of a new institution — has been completed. And it is in compliance with a resolution of the committee of man- agement of this institution, that we have now once more the pleasure of explaining our object, and of in- viting the cooperation of all those who wish to mitigate the sufferings of their fellow-men. The object of this Society is, as stated in the reso- lutions passed at its formation, to encourage the prac- tice of Medicine among the Chinese, to extend to them some of those benefits, which science, patient investiga- 20 tion, and the ever- kindling light of discovery, have con- ferred upon ourselves. In the midst of many improvements, and surrounded by numerous social advantages, the Chinese are never- theless deficient in medicine and surgery, and acknowl- edge this deficiency by their conduct, whenever they can avail themselves of the well-directed skill and the superior adroitness of foreigners. The love of ease and the hopes of health lead mankind to accept assist- ance, wherever they can find it, to forego their preju- dices, and sometimes to make large sacrifices, even up- on a very slender prospect of recovery. The Chinese, though exclusive in all their policy, form no exception to this rule, for they have come in crowds to the opthal- mic institutions, submitting to operations and medical treatment with unbounded confidence, and obtaining health and restoration, through the means of the physi- cian, with every mark of the most unfeigned respect and thankfulness. Our course, then, is clear, a road to usefulness is thus open before us, a great people stand in need of our as- sistance in this way, and are withal very glad to receive it. To restore health, to ease pain, or in any way to diminish the sum of human misery, forms an object worthy of the philanthropist. But in the prosecution of our views we look forward to far higher results than the mere relief of human Buffering. We hope that our endeavors will tend to break down the walls of preju- 21 dice and long cherished nationality of feeling, and to teach the Chinese, that those whom they affect to de- spise are both able and willing to become their bene- factors. They shut the door against the teachers of the Gospel ; they find our books often written in idioms which they cannot readily understand ; and they have laid such restrictions upon commerce that it does not awaken amongst them that love of science, that spirit of invention, and that freedom of thought, which it uni- formly excites and fosters, whenever it is allowed to take its own course without limit or interference. In the way of doing them good, our opportunities are few, but among these, that of practising medicine and surgery stands preeminent. Favorable results have hitherto fol- lowed it, and will still continue to do so. It is a depart- ment of benevolence peculiarly adapted to China. Or- dinary modes of conveying information fail to attract the regard of the Chinese. Hence their groundless fears and suspicions of us continue unchanged. If a ray of light flash unexpectedly upon them, they view it, not as a pure beam from an uncorrupted source, but as an ignis fatuus calculated only to mislead. Could we dispel these fears, and make known to them the true character and desires of the civilized western nations, many are sanguine that a more friendly policy would be adopted towards us. And in the department of benev- olence to which our attention is now turned, purity and disinterestedness of motive are more clearly evinced 22 than in any other. They appear unmasked ; they at- tract the gaze, and excite the admiration and gratitude, of thousands. " Heal the sick " is our motto, — ■ constituting alike the injunction under which we act, and the object at which we aim, and which, with the blessing of God, we hope to accomplish, by means of scientific practice, in the exercise of an unbought and untiring kindness. We have called ours a Missionary Society, because we trust it will advance the cause of missions, and be- cause we want men to fill our institutions, who to requi- site skill and experience add the self-denial and the high moral qualities which are usually looked for in a mis- sionary. For the Agents by whom we are to carry our object into execution, we must look to the Missionary Boards and Committees in Great Britain and the United States. They have it in their power to help us. and are best qualified to select men that arc fitted to execute our designs. We do not engage to support such individ- uals, and therefore shall leave them free to cherish all the better feelings of an honorable independence. We offer them hospitals, with every other necessary and suitable accommodation, and means of effecting <iood. In these hospitals we require for the patients the same uniform and well-considered attention, which are en- joyed in institutions of a similar kind at home. Men of eminent qualifications and tried character arc indis- 23 pensable for the successful prosecution of the work. For after the Society has done all it can do, by way of preparation, its direct influence on the Chinese is to be exerted through the agents it employs : on them, therefore, the destinies of the Society are suspended. If they fail, it fails. Their success, is its success. They are to give effect to the wishes of the Society and its friends. Too much care cannot be bestowed on their selection. Both in character and in practice they should be every way good men. The constitution of the So- ciety has been framed so as to guard — as far as it is in its power to guard — this point. By the employment of such an agency the way will be paved to a higher place in the confidence and es- teem of the Chinese, which will tend to put our com- merce and all our intercourse with this nation upon a more desirable footing, and to open avenues for the in- troduction of those sciences and that religion, to which we owe our greatness, by which we are enabled to act a useful part in this life, and which fit us for the enjoy- ment of a better life hereafter. And it will not be de- nied, that these form desiderata of no ordinary interest and importance. There are other advantages, which, though they be of a subordinate kind, are not without their value. Among the first we would refer to the benefits, which are likely to result to medical science by cultivating it in China. Countries are not less characterized by the 24 form and nature of the soil and its productions, than they are by the prevalence of certain maladies and a partial or complete exemption from others. The con- templation of disease as influenced by the position and height of a country, its inland or maritime location, and the general habits of the people, conducts the student to a most engaging range of medical philosophy, while it discloses many important lessons to assist him in the way of benefiting his fellow-creatures. The advan- tages derivable from such a contemplation have been acknowledged at all periods, and in all quarters. To secure these advantages, it is required, that a book should be kept in all the institutions connected with this Society, into which an entry will be made of all impor- tant cases, with a notice, not only of the disease and the treatment pursued, but also of the province, habits, and other circumstances bearing upon the history, of each individual. Such books will in time be curious and in- structive documents, and such as will enable us to glance at the penetralia of domestic and social life in China, which we now can only read of, or view at a distance, from the very outskirts of the country. It will not require much illustration to show, in the second place, that information will be obtained in this way of the highest value to the missionary and the man of commercial enterprise. The general state of feeling in this vast and thickly populated country, the partiali- ties and prejudices of the people, can only be seen by us through a very questionable and imperfect medium. 25 The wants and resources of a territory so diversified and extensive are only known to us by reports, which are not always consistent with each other. But by such an intercourse with the people, as these institutions will afford, the truth will be learned in some measure, and answers to many questions, which we are now interested to ask, will be obtained ; for a sick man will often deal frankly with his physician, however he may be disposed to conceal facts, or garble his statements with any other person. Another advantage will be the education of young Chinese in those branches of science that belong to medicine. Facts show that Chinese parents are not altogether blind to the desirableness of placing their sons in our hospitals, as three are already under tuition in the institution at Canton. Young men thus instruct- ed will gradually be dispersed over the empire, travel- ling for pleasure, honor, or reward, and will dispense the benefits of a systematic acquaintance with the sub- ject wherever they go. The success of their measures will render them respectable, and of course will redound to the credit of those also from whom they have learned the art. Their patients will not only hear, but feel that the people from the West are good men. The effect of such influences will be silent, but powerful, for there is something irresistibly impressive in a benevolent action, especially when it appears to be exempt from the impu- tation of interested motives. 4 26 The Society recommends the study of the Chinese language, because to question a patient through an in- terpreter is a circuitous and often a very doubtful pro- cess. A knowledge of the language will open another door of inquiry, namely, in relation to the substances used in Chinese Pharmacy, and to their peculiar modes of preparation. As the reciprocations of health and sickness are various in different countries, so Providence has displayed a corresponding variety in the distribution of remedies. This correspondence between the pre- vailing disorders of any country and the remedies which the hand of nature has provided, is often very striking, and will become more so as the subject is investigated. We may therefore look for a great many valuable addi- tions to our dispensatories, while an extended acquaint- ance with disease under new modifications will help to enlarge and complete our system of nosology. With a small stock of Chinese phrases, great immediate good may be effected, but to accomplish extensive and per- manent good, an acquaintance with their language, and with their treatises on the theory and practice of medi- cine, as prevailing in the country, is indispensable. This is requisite, also, to enable one to write works by which their erroneous .systems nvay be revolutionized. A man's usefulness will be in proportion, ceteris pari- bus, to his knowledge of the language. If knowledge be indeed power, then is that of the language of China on the part of those who would benefit the Chinese em- phatically so. 27 We have alluded to the revolutionizing of the erro- neous systems of the Chinese. But little argument is needed to prove the urgent importance of effecting such a revolution. A few facts will suffice to show it. Authors of medical treatises, enjoying a high reputa- tion and imperial patronage, are found to extol the efficacy of many secret remedies and vaunted specifics. And all, or almost all, adopt the common vagaries concerning the pulse — their infallible key to every ailment, and concerning the influence of the elements in causing and affecting disease. Persons in the highest ranks of society believe in astrology, and consult the almanac in order to select an auspicious day for apply- ing to a physician, though that day may not come till their disease has advanced beyond the control of human skill. The Chinese admit their ignorance of medical science, especially of surgery and anatomy. An amus- ing and ridiculous compound of astrological dogmas and dissertations on the influence of the elements, like the " Ethers and Elements " of Heraclitus, takes the place of the well-established principles of physiology and chemistry now received in the West. As yet we are not aware that any correct knowledge regarding the circulation of the blood obtains in China. Obser- vation, however, has taught them, that the frequency and force of the pulse are not the same in sickness and in health. Deducing from this circumstance unfounded notions on the subject of pulsation, a Chinese practition- 28 er, on observing the character of the pulse in the last stages of disease, will hazard a prognosis of the number of hours the patient may have to live. In the indefinite use of the word gg by the Chinese, and of 9^<4 by Pythagoras, we observe a remarkable coincidence. By both the same term is often employed to designate veins, arteries, nerves, and tendons. It has been sometimes objected, that to attend to the diseases of men is not the proper business of a mission- ary. This objection may be shortly answered by a reference to the conduct of the Savior and his apostles, who, while they taught mankind things that concerned their eternal interests, were not indifferent to their bodily sufferings. What He was pleased to do by his Divine power, and what they did by miraculous endowments, no one can in these days pretend to effect. But we are commanded and encouraged to imitate them, by the use of such means as knowledge and the exercise of a genuine charity will furnish. The importance of edu- cation has long been admitted, and none regard its requisite expense as a perversion of sacred funds, — not that education can make the pagan a Christian, but be- cause it is one of the best auxiliaries. Neither has it been considered a misapplication of money, or of the missionary's talent, to employ science as an instrument wherewith to sweep away the foundations of idolatrous systems, — not that science can convert a heathen, but that, by demonstrating to him the falsity of his religion, 29 it may prepare the way for him to seek the truth. A similar rank and equal consideration are what we ask for the healing science and practice. A peculiarity of the Medical Missionary Society in China is, that it addresses itself to the consideration of all. The man of science and the philanthropist, who look especially to immediate benefits, are here interest- ed. And to the sympathies of those who, while they equally appreciate the desirableness of contributing in every feasible manner to the welfare of their species for time, contemplate with unspeakably more solicitude those interests which are eternal, it presents an irresist- ible — an overwhelming — claim. When we reflect upon the present state of surgery and medicine in China, the suffering that is experienced, the lives annually and needlessly lost, and advert to the time when similar ig- norance was the misfortune of the nations of Europe ; and when we consider the rational basis upon which science is now established, and our facilities for impart- ing it to others ; the obligation upon enlightened na- tions becomes imperative, to improve the opportunity afforded, of imparting to others the incalculable benefits received from the application of chemistry and natural and inductive philosophy to the subject of health, in the investigation of the causes and phenomena of disease and the means of controlling it. The world is a whole : and as the human race ap- proximates to the perfection which it is destined to 30 reach, the principle of union and fellow-feeling will be- come more and more influential. A Bacon, a Newton, or a Franklin, is not to be monopolized. Such men belong not merely to the nation that gave them birth, but to the whole world. They were doubtless designed by Providence, to be blessings not merely to a single age or country, but to all successive ages, and to every land. Upon those who first enjoyed the boon, rests the obligation to extend universally their principles, which have revolutionized the philosophy and science of Europe, and which, whenever permitted free ingress, will produce similar results in China. Surely no accu- mulation of arguments is required to prove a case so clear. If the principle is admitted that our race is one, then the remoteness of the empire for which we plead cannot neutralize the obligation. To facilitate cooperation in the observance of this obligation, agents are appointed in the principal cities of England and America. About $9,000 have been contributed in China and its vicinity within the last two years to this cause, but whilst friends here encourage the expectation of a continuance of their aid, the Society must look to the affluent of happier lands for its principal support. When we survey the vastness of the field, the good to be effected, and when, reflecting upon the immense resources of the western hemisphere, we compare these with the small portion of wealth required to secure the 31 desired object, we are confident that benevolence — disinterested like its author, and as expansive as the woes of man are extensive, will not withhold the means. A rare opportunity is here afforded to the philanthropist of doing good — of enjoying the felicity of imparting to others, without diminution to himself, some of his rich- est blessings. He is invited to unite in accomplishing a great, immediate, and positive good, — is encouraged by the hope of immediate success, to aid in uniting to the great family of nations this long severed and seclu- ded branch, and in introducing among this people not only the healing art, but in its train the sciences, and all the blessings of Christianity. To the various missionary Boards whose cooperation is sought, we would respect- fully say, imitate Him whose gospel you desire to pub- lish to every land. Like Him, regard not as beneath your notice the opening the eyes of the blind and the ears of the deaf, and the healing all manner of diseases. Until permitted to publish openly and without restraint the truths of the gospel, neglect not the opportunity afforded of freely practising its spirit. Scatter to the utmost its fruits, until welcomed to plant the tree that produces them — the " tree of life." (Signed) T. R. Colledge. Peter Parker. E. C. Bridgman. China, April 14, 1838.